The laptop works by using a battery to power the computer and then sends that signal to the screen. All of the components inside of the laptop are powered through DC current with a voltage ranging from 3-20 volts which is supplied by the motherboard and regulated by either an AC or DC adapter plugged into wall outlet, or in some cases batteries themselves. Here is a list of laptops on pickcheaplaptops.com
Various parts like CPU, GPU, RAM, etc gets hot when used for extended periods so laptops come equipped with heat sinks and cooling fans usually located near these chips in order to prevent any damage that might be caused due to overheating.
One of the downsides to laptops is that they tend to use more power than desktop PCs and so battery life can be an issue, especially if using high-end components. This is because most laptop parts are designed to run at full speed regardless of whether or not a connection to an external power supply is available.
One of the main benefits to laptops is that they are portable and so can be used while on the go. This is in contrast to desktop PCs which tend to require a separate space for use and cannot easily be taken with you when travelling.